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June 8, 2020


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I don't usually write on international relations but these days China is doing wrong with India and as Indian citizen I can’t keep quiet. It is high time to stand up and speak about it. This blog is a bit long. Kindly bare with me. I shall give you the details on chinese products and friends, i request you to stop using them PLEASE.


India and china new conflict
Indian and Chinese soldiers were reported to have gotten into standoff-like situations at several points along the LAC in Ladakh. The standoffs have taken place in Pangong Tso, Galwan Valley, and Demchok. The Chinese are believed to have built up a large force of soldiers and equipment, forcing the Indian Army to make matching deployments.

Now before understanding border conflicts let see history between these two super power countries

On 1 April, 1950, India became the first non-socialist bloc country to establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. Prime Minister Nehru visited China in October 1954. While, the India-China border conflict in 1962 was a serious setback to ties, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s landmark visit in 1988 began a phase of improvement in bilateral relations. In 1993, the signing of an Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) on the India-China Border Areas during Prime Minister Narasimha Rao’s visit reflected the growing stability and substance in bilateral ties.

Cumulative outcomes of the recent high level visits have been transformational for our ties. During Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit in 2003, India and China signed a Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation and also mutually decided to appoint Special Representatives (SRs) to explore the framework of a boundary settlement from the political perspective. During the April 2005 visit of Premier Wen Jiabao, the two sides established a Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity, while the signing of an agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles, signaled the successful conclusion of the first phase of SR Talks.
During the State Visit of Chinese President Mr. Xi Jinping to India from 17 to 19 September 2014, a total of 16 agreements were signed in various sectors including, commerce & trade, railways, space -cooperation, pharmaceuticals, audio-visual coproduction, culture, establishment of industrial parks, sister-city arrangements etc. The two sides also signed a MoU to open an additional route for Kailash Mansarovar Yatra through Nathu La. The Chinese side agreed to establish two Chinese Industrial Parks in India and expressed their intention to enhance Chinese investment in India.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China from May 14-16, 2015. Besides meeting with the Chinese leadership, Prime Minister Modi and Premier Li also addressed the opening session of the First State/Provincial Leaders’ Forum in Beijing. There were 24 agreements signed on the government -to-government side, 26 MoUs on the businessto-business side and two joint statements, including one on climate change. Prime Minister also announced the extension of the e-visa facility to Chinese nationals wishing to travel to India.

The momentum of meetings at the leadership level continued in 2016 too. President Pranab Mukherjee made a state visit to China from May 24 to 27, 2016. He visited Guangdong and Beijing where he met with the Chinese leadership. President also delivered a keynote address at the Peking University and attended a Round Table between Vice Chancellors and Heads of institutions of higher learning of the two countries. Ten MoUs providing for enhanced faculty and student exchanges as well as collaboration in research and innovation were concluded between the higher education institutions of the two countries. Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China in September 2016 to participate in the G20 Summit in Hangzhou and September 2017 to participate in the BRICS Summit in Xiamen, where he also held bilateral talks with President Xi Jinping. President Xi Jinping visited India in October 2016 to participate in the BRICS Summit in Goa. The two leaders also met along the sidelines of the SCO Heads of States Summit in Tashkent in June 2016 and in Astana in June 2017.

India and China have established more than thirty dialogue mechanisms at various levels, covering bilateral political, economic, consular issues as well as dialogues on international and regional issues. The Foreign Ministers have been meeting regularly. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi travelled to India from 12-14 August, 2016 during which he met with EAM and called on Prime Minister. The mechanism of Special Representatives on the Boundary Question was established in 2003. The 19th round of talks between Shri Ajit Doval, National Security Advisor and Mr. Yang Jiechi, State Councillor was held in Beijing in April, 2016. State Councillor Yang Jiechi also visited India in November 2016 where he met with NSA for informal strategic consultations. The 1st reconstituted Strategic Dialogue between Foreign Secretary, Mr. S Jaishankar and the Chinese Executive Vice Foreign Minister Mr. Zhang Yesui was held in February 2017. India and China have also established a High Level Dialogue Mechanism on Counter Terrorism and Security, led by Mr. R.N. Ravi, Chairman (JIC) and Mr. Wang Yongqing, Secretary General of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission of China. The first meeting of the mechanism was held in Beijing in September 2016. To facilitate high level exchanges of Party leaders from China and State Chief Ministers from India, a special arrangement has been entered into by the International Liaison Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA-IDCPC) since 2004. There are regular Party-to-Party exchanges between the Communist Party of China and political parties in India. In order to facilitate exchanges between Indian states and Chinese provinces, the two sides have also established a States/Provincial Leaders Forum.

Commercial and Economic Relations

The Trade and Economic Relationship between India and China has seen a rapid growth in the last few years. Trade volume between the two countries in the beginning of the century, year 2000, stood at US$ 3 billion. In 2008, bilateral trade reached US$ 51.8 billion with China replacing the United States as India’s largest “Goods trading partner.” In 2011 bilateral trade reached an all-time high of US$ 73.9 billion.

India-China trade in 2016 decreased by 0.67% year-on-year to US$ 71.18 billion. India’s exports to China decreased by 12.29% year-on-year to US$ 11.748 billion while India’s imports from China saw a year-on-year growth of 2.01% to US$ 59.428 billion. The Indian trade deficit with China further increased by 6.28% year-on-year to US$ 47.68 billion. In 2016, India was the 7th largest export destination for Chinese products, and the 27th largest exporter to China. India-China trade in the first eight months of 2017 increased by 18.34% year-on-year to US$ 55.11 billion. India’s exports to China increased by 40.69% year-on-year to US$ 10.60 billion while India’s imports from China saw a year-on-year growth of 14.02 % to US$ 44.50 billion. The Indian trade deficit with China further increased by 7.64% year-on-year to US$ 33.90 billion.

China-India bilateral trade touched $87.1 bn in FY19, accounting for a trade deficit of $53.6 bn for India. The trade has grown to 37x in the last 20 years. Bilateral trade is likely to easily achieve $100 bn target set by the two countries. Another interesting fact is that India is the 7th largest export destination for Chinese products and is likely to be amongst the fastest growing destination. A looming trade deficit for India (swelling from $9.2 bn in FY07 to $53.6 bn in FY19) is the point of contention for over a decade in every China-India dialogue. Experts argue that for FY19, the rare trade deficit of $5 bn with Hong Kong should also be added to China’s tally. China should seriously consider allowing greater market access for Indian specialities like pharmaceuticals, agri-commodities and movies.

Now lets talk about border conflicts



India and China fought a war in 1962, but the border issues have lingered on, with Beijing claiming the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and New Delhi considering China-controlled Aksai Chin as its territory. The last major border tension occurred in 2014, when Chinese troops reportedly entered Indian territory in Ladakh. The standoff was resolved after three weeks.
On 05 May 2020, a scuffle broke out between Indian and Chinese troops at the Pangong Tso lake, located 14,000 feet (4,270 metres) above the sea level in the Himalayan region of Ladakh. Analysts have suggested that the Chinese border assertion was a way to divert global attention from its handling of the coronavirus pandemic. The incident at the Line of Actual Control (LAC), continued until the next day, resulting in 11 soldiers being injured on both sides. Three days later and nearly 1,200km (745 miles) away to the east along the LAC, another fight erupted at Nathu La Pass in the Indian state of Sikkim after Indian soldiers stopped a patrol party from China's People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
A sizeable number of Chinese Army personnel entered into the Indian side of the de-facto border and were camping in Pangong Tso and Galwan Valley since then. The Chinese Army ramped up their presence in Demchok and Daulat Beg Oldie too - two sensitive areas with a history of skirmishes involving the two sides. The Chinese Army deployed around 2,500 troops in Pangong Tso and Galwan Valley.
In the midst of escalating border tension between Indian and Chinese troops in eastern Ladakh, Prime Minister Narendra on 26 May 2020 met with National Security Adviser Ajit Doval, Chief of Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat and the three service chiefs with a focus on bolstering India's military preparedness to deal with external security challenges. "China's strategy to put military pressure on India will not work. We want restoration of the status quo along the LAC" said an official on the condition of anonymity.
The defence minister conveyed to top military brass that there was no need for reviewing the implementation of any of the key projects along the LAC. In view of the three week standoff, the Indian Army had significantly ramped up its presence in sensitive border areas in North Sikkim, Uttarakhand and Arunachal Pradesh besides Ladakh to send across a message that India will not be wilting under any aggressive military posturing by China.
The Chinese side had been particularly peeved at India laying a key road in the finger area of Pangong Tso Lake region besides another road connecting the Darbuk-Shayok-Daulat Beg Oldie road in Galwan Valley. The situation in eastern Ladakh deteriorated 05 May 2020 when 250 Chinese and Indian soldiers engaged in a violent face-off which spilled over to the next day before the two sides agreed to "disengage" following a meeting of local commanders. Over 100 Indian and Chinese soldiers were injured in the violence. In a separate incident, 150 Indian and Chinese troops faced off near Naku La Pass in the Sikkim sector on 09 May 2020. At least 10 soldiers from both sides sustained injuries.
The overall situation in the China-India border area is stable and under control, and the two countries are capable of resolving border issues through dialogue and negotiations, the Chinese Foreign Ministry said 27 May 2020, following reports claiming China had moved 5,000 troops to the China-India border area.
The Indian Army and the Chinese military are moving in heavy equipment and weaponry including artillery and combat vehicles to their rear bases close to the disputed areas in eastern Ladakh. The two sides remain engaged in a standoff along the troubled region for over 25 days. The Chinese Army has been gradually ramping up its strategic reserves in its rear bases near the Line of Actual Control or LAC in eastern Ladakh by rushing in artillery, infantry combat vehicles and heavy military equipment. The Indian Army has also been moving in additional troops as well equipment and weapons like artillery.
The Chinese unilaterally stopped Indian troops from patrolling crucial areas along the north bank of Pangong Tso (a 135-km glacial melt lake). Eight mountain spurs of the Chang Chenmo range end at the north bank of this lake. Each spur or ridgeline is identified as ‘finger’ in military parlance and each ridgeline is separated by 2-5 km. On the night intervening May 5-6, troops of both sides had clashed, resulting in injuries to many. India assumed the LAC to be at ‘Finger 4’. China is trying to push Indian troops back to ‘Finger 2’, which is a distance of more than 10 km. India was patrolling till ‘Finger 4’ but the Chinese are not allowing patrols to pass.

Satellite images help spot another China PLA position near the Hotsprings Sector (Gogra) [34°19'44"N 79°06'39"E] showed large scale vehicular activity throughout may consistent with media reports of the region (15Km NE of India base, Gogra & 6Km from LAC).
"Hot Springs” is not just a place but an epitaph of exemplary bravery displayed by Indian Police and their supreme sacrifice while protecting the territorial integrity of the country under extreme geo-climatic conditions. Hot Springs is situated in the Aksai Chin area of Ladakh, having an inhospitable terrain at an altitude ranging between approx. 15,000-18,000 ft. The journey to Hot Springs is covered by road from Chandigarh to Leh.

In pursuance to the decision taken in 1960, a group of about 20-25 police officers/men representing various States and Central Police Forces visit the Hot Springs, Ladakh (J&K) every year to pay homage to the ten (10) valiant policemen, who laid down their lives in the service of motherland on October 21, 1959 in an unequal combat with heavily armed Chinese troops.
Since 1953 onwards, Leh (Ladakh) and its frontier check posts had been entrusted to CRPF. This was the time when Indo-China border was not militarised, and the 2500 km Indo-Tibetan border was manned by police personnel of ITBF & CRPF. The only Army Garrison was in Leh. It was believed that there is no threat from “friendly” China.
During this time China completed the strategic development of construction of a highway through a traditional caravan route passing from Sinkiang to Tibet via Aksai Chin. Not only did they publicly announce the completion of highway but The People’s Daily, in October 1959, published a map of the region showing Aksai Chin as Chinese territory. PLA also moved in and established itself.
On the fateful day of Oct. 21, 1959, 10 valiant Police personnel laid down their lives fighting at 16,000 ft altitude, in extremely cold conditions and against all odds, in an unequal combat with heavily armed Chinese troops. Before actual action commenced, Shri Sonam Wangyal recalled “Chinese Commander and Karam Singh engaged in a showdown with both vehemently claiming the area and asking the other to retreat.... This continued for three hrs and suddenly Chinese side started firing.”
In intensely cold and harsh terrain, Policemen went way beyond their duty to protect the nation from heavily armed Chinese forces. The valour of Police Jawans fighting at 16,000 ft. altitude, in freezing conditions and against a well-equipped and heavily armed army regiment, is a rare saga of courage and commitment to duty.
This event brought together the nation and eventually the long-required change in Security doctrine of the country. India observes October 21st each year as Police Commemoration Day to honour Police personnel who have laid down their lives in the line of duty. What makes the Police Forces unique is that its members take an oath to make the supreme sacrifice, on the altar of duty. In recent years the number of those who have attained martyrdom has been around 400-500 per annum.
China honed its "salami tactics" in the Himalayas in the 1950s, when it grabbed the Aksai Chin plateau by surreptitiously building a strategic highway through that unguarded region. Aksai Chin, part of the original princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, provided China with the only passageway between its restive regions of Tibet and Xinjiang.
Although there is a general framework to settle the India-China border dispute, neither side can move forward with any agreement because a) both sides are "fundamentally distrustful of each other"; and b) domestic politics will prevent either side from making any concessions. He said the talks have reached an impasse, and there is no hope of settling the issue in the near future.
Domestic politics play a major role in the dispute, and neither side would be able to make concessions without angering their domestic audience. Although China is not a democracy like India, the Chinese Government is afraid of rousing a public that is already sensitive about border issues.
Doklam, in the Sikkim sector, is a strategically important area which is claimed by Bhutan. India has been acting as security guarantor to the tiny country in the sensitive region. There is “no change” in the status quo situation at the Dokalam standoff area after it was resolved last year, India’s envoy Gautam Bambawale said 24 March 2018. The Indian envoy also blamed China squarely for the face off, saying it happened because Beijing tried to alter the “status quo” which it should not have. The 73-day long
standoff ended on 28 August 2017 after China agreed to halt the road building activities at Dokalam in Sikkim section.
A new motorable road built by the Border Roads Organisation has reduced the duration for moving India troops to Dokala, on the edge of the Doklam plateau near Sikkim where India and China were locked in a 73-day standoff in 2017, a senior official said on 03 October 2019. The road, previously a mule track, was completed last year and goes from Bheem base to Dokala. The BRO is planning to construct another motorable road on the Flag Hill-Dokala route by March 2021, the official said. “Currently, Dokala is connected to India only through ‘Tri junction-Bheem base-Dokala’ route, which was completed in 2018. Therefore, construction on another motorable road from Flag hill has begun,” he said. These roads are expected to streamline the movement of Indian troops to the sensitive region.
In July 2017 India and China were caught in a lengthy confrontation along their shared frontier, spiking tensions and allowing a rabidly jingoistic press in both countries to aggravate the already deep-seated mutual distrust. The current confrontation seems to be the most serious in recent times and shows no signs of de-escalating. Both countries upped the ante and deployed around 3,000 troops each in the tri-junction.
"We firmly believe that the face-off in the Donglang area will end up with the Indian troops in retreat. The Indian military can choose to return to its territory with dignity or be kicked out of the area by Chinese soldiers," China's nationalist tabloid Global Times said on July 5. "This time we must teach New Delhi a bitter lesson." An article on the PLA's English-language website, China Military Online, has warned that "if a solution isn't reached through diplomatic or military communication or the issue isn't handled properly, another armed conflict ... is not completely out of the question."
Chinese and Indian border troops confronted each other close to a valley controlled by China that separates India from Bhutan - a close Indian ally - and gives China access to the so-called Chicken's Neck, a thin strip of land that connects India to its remote northeastern regions. It escalated tensions between the neighboring giants, who share a 3,500-kilometer (2,175-mile) frontier, large parts of which are disputed.
Beijing alleges Indian troops crossed into a region known in China as Donglang, called Doklam in India, early in June and obstructed work on a road on the Himalayan plateau. Chinese officials say the Indian side's actions infringe upon an 1890 border agreement between Britain and China that previous Indian governments pledged to uphold.
India, meanwhile, claims Chinese troops entered and tried to construct a road in Bhutanese territory. Landlocked Bhutan, a small Himalayan nation sandwiched between India and China, is hugely dependent on New Delhi and does not have diplomatic relations with Beijing.
Bhutan said the construction of the road on its territory is "a direct violation" of agreements with China. "Bhutan hopes that the status quo in the Doklam area will be maintained as before June 16, 2017," its foreign ministry said. Although China and Bhutan have been negotiating the precise border for decades without serious incident, Bhutan this time sought help from India, which considers the particular patch of mountain to be a strategically vital territory and sent troops to the plateau to stop the Chinese workers. Both sides have failed to fix the issue since then.
Chinese officials have also warned India that it should learn "historic lessons" from its humiliating defeat in the 1962 war that both countries fought over their border. In response, Indian Defense Minister Arun Jaitley retorted that "India in 2017 is different from India in 1962," referring to its improved military strength. Indian media issued shrill warnings about Chinese expansionism, while Chinese state media ramped up their bellicose rhetoric, with the nationalist tabloid Global Times warning that Beijing would make no concessions.
On assuming power, the People‘s Republic of China (PRC) renounced all prior foreign agreements as unequal treaties imposed upon it during the "century of humiliation" and demanded renegotiation of all borders. The Sino-India border remains the only major territorial dispute, other than South China Sea disputes, that China has not resolved. China‘s growing assertiveness in its territorial claims, especially on Arunachal Pradesh, and its relentless development of infrastructure in Tibet will shape the prospects of Sino-India relations.
The territory stretching from the jungles of northern Myanmar, westward to the Karakoram Range, and northward to the edge of the Tibetan plateau can be seen as a single geopolitical system referred to as the Himalayan-Tibetan massif. The ruggedness of this terrain makes movement of men and materiel extremely difficult, thus preventing Indian and Chinese civilizations from intermingling or projecting military power in these remote areas effectively. Not until 1962 did the Chinese and Indian armies fight each other over these desolate heights, thus altering the geopolitics of the region significantly.
The McMahon Line boundary dispute is at the heart of relations between China and India. China has land and sea boundary issues with 14 neighbors, mostly for historical reasons. The Chinese have two major claims on what India deems its own territory. One claim, in the western sector, is on Aksai Chin in the northeastern section of Ladakh District in Jammu and Kashmir. The other claim is in the eastern sector over a region included in the British-designated North-East Frontier Agency, the disputed part of which India renamed Arunachal Pradesh and made a state. In the fight over these areas in 1962, the well-trained and well-armed troops of the Chinese People's Liberation Army overpowered the ill-equipped Indian troops, who had not been properly acclimatized to fighting at high altitudes.
In the early 20th Century Britain sought to advance its line of control and establish buffer zones around its colony in South Asia. In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Convention. Sir Henry McMahon, the foreign secretary of British India at the time, drew up the 550 mile (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Tibet during the Simla Conference. The so-called McMahon Line, drawn primarily on the highest watershed principle, demarcated what had previously been unclaimed or undefined borders between Britain and Tibet. The McMahon line moved British control substantially northwards. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the imperial British Empire. However the Chinese representative refused to accept the line. Peking claimed territory in this far north down to the border of the plain of Assam.
The land is mostly mountainous with Himalayan ranges along the northern borders criss-crossed with mountain ranges running north-south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. High mountains and dense forests have prevented intercommunication between tribes living in different river valleys. The geographical isolation thus imposed has led different tribes to elove their own dialects and grow with their distinct identities. Nature has endowed the Arunachal people with a deep sense of beauty which finds delightful expression in their songs, dances and crafts.
A slow forward move towards the McMahon Line was begun on the ground, to establish a new de facto boundary. The McMahon Line was then forgotten until about 1935 when the British government decided to publish the documents in the 1937 edition of Aitchison's Collection of Treaties. The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. On 7 November 1959, Chou En-lai proposed that both sides should withdraw their troops twenty kilometers from the McMahon line. The issue was quiet during the decade of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. During the 1962 war, the PRC captured most of the NEFA. However, China soon declared victory and voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line.
China is in occupation of approximately 38,000 sq. kms of Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir. In addition, under the so-called China-Pakistan "Boundary Agreement" of 1963, Pakistan ceded 5,180 sq. kms. of Indian territory in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir to China. China claims approximately 90,000 sq. kms. of Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh and about 2000 sq. kms. in the Middle Sector of the India-China boundary. Beijing has stated that it does not recognise Arunachal Pradesh.
The border between China and India has never been officially delimited. China's position on the eastern part of the border between the two countries is consistent. Not a single Chinese government recognizes the "illegal" McMahon Line. For China, the McMahon Line, stands as a symbol of imperialist aggression on the country. The so-called "Arunachal Pradesh" dispute is China's most intractable border issue. Because the gap between the positions of China and India is wide, it is difficult for both nations to reach consensus. The area of this disputed region is three times that of Taiwan, six times that of Beijing and ten times that of the Malvenas islands, disputed by Britain and Argentina. It is flat and rich in water and forest resources.
Arunachal Pradesh is the only issue which has a potential for conflict between India and China. If ever India and China go to war one day, it will be on this issue. India considers recurring Sino-Indian border clashes a potential threat to its security. Since the war, each side continued to improve its military and logistics capabilities in the disputed regions. China has continued its occupation of the Aksai Chin area, through which it built a strategic highway linking Xizang and Xinjiang autonomous regions. China had a vital military interest in maintaining control over this region, whereas India's primary interest lay in Arunachal Pradesh, its state in the northeast bordering Xizang Autonomous Region.
Barring an armed clash at Nathu La in eastern Sikkim in 1967, the border between India and China (Tibet) - and specifically the ill-defined Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh/Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh - had remained free of any major incidents through the 1970s and the early 1980s. While relations between the two countries remained cool,, official statements from Beijing and New Delhi professed a desire to solve the border tangle peacefully through mutual consultations. Beginning in December 1981, officials from both countries held yearly talks on the border issue.
With the improvement of logistics on the Indian side, the Indian Army sought to reinforce and strengthen forward areas in Arunachal Pradesh in the early 1980s. Patrols resumed in 1981 and by the summer of 1984 India had established an observation post on the bank of the Sumdorong Chu [referred to as Sangduoluo He in the Chinese media].
In July 1986 there were reports in the Indian media of Chinese incursions into the Sumdorong Chu [S-C] rivervalley in Arunachal Pradesh. By September-October, an brigade of the Indian Army 5 Mountain Division was airlifted to Zimithang, a helipad very close to the S-C valley. Referred to as Operation Falcon, this involved the occupation of ridges overlooking the S-C valley, including Langrola and the Hathung La ridge across the Namka Chu rivulet.
This was followed by reports of large-scale troop movements on both sides of the border in early 1987, and grave concerns about a possible military clash over the border. In February 1987, India established the so-called Arunachal Pradesh in its ["illegally occupied"] Chinese-claimed territories south of the McMahon Line. The Chinese side made solemn statements on many occasions that China never recognizes the "illegal" McMahon Line and the "so-called" Arunachal Pradesh. After these events, and India's conversion of Arunachal Pradesh from union territory to state, tensions between China and India escalated. Both sides moved to reinforce their capabilities in the area, but neither ruled out further negotiations of their dispute.
China, which had always maintained a large military presence in Tibet, was said to have moved in 20,000 troops from the"53rd Army Corps in Chengdu and the 13th Army in Lanzhou by early 1987, along with heavy artillery and helicopters. By early April, it had moved 8 divisions to eastern Tibet as a prelude to possible belligerent action. Reinforcements on the Indian side began with Operation Falcon in late 1986, and continued through early 1987 under Exercise Chequerboard. This massive air-land exercise involved 10 Divisions of the Indian Army and several squadrons of the IAF. The Indian Army moved 3 divisions to positions around Wangdung, where they were supplied solely by air. These reinforcements were over and above the 50,000 troops already present across Arunachal Pradesh.
Although India enjoyed air superiority in 1987, rough parity on the ground existed between the two military forces, which had a combined total of nearly 400,000 troops near the border. The Indian Army deployed eleven divisions in the region, backed up by paramilitary forces, whereas the PLA had fifteen divisions available for operations on the border. Most observers believe that the mountainous terrain, high-altitude climate, and concomitant logistic difficulties made it unlikely that a protracted or larges-cale conflict would erupt on the Sino-Indian border.
That the Sino-Indian border has not suffered any major disruptions since 1986, as compared to the incessant firing incidents and infiltration on the Indo-Pak borders, made the Sino-Indian border an example of good neighbourly relations.
In December 1988, Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China. The Prime Ministers of the two countries agreed to settle the boundary questions through the guiding principle of "Mutual Understanding and Accommodation and Mutual Adjustment". Agreement also reached that while seeking for the mutually acceptable solution to the boundary questions, the two countries should develop their relations in other fields and make efforts to create the atmosphere and conditions conducive to the settlement of the boundary questions. The two sides agreed to establish a Joint Working Group (JWG) on the boundary questions at the Vice-Foreign Ministerial level.
An Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas was signed on 7 September 1993. After more than thirty years of border tension and stalemate, high-level bilateral talks were held in New Delhi starting in February 1994 to foster "confidence-building measures" between the defense forces of India and China, and a new period of better relations began. In November 1995, the two sides dismantled the guard posts in close proximity to each other along the borderline in Wangdong area, making the situation in the border areas more stable. During President Jiang Zemin's visit to India at the end of November 1996, the Governments of China and India signed the Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the Line of Actual Control in the China-India Border Areas, which is an important step for the building of mutual trust between the two countries. These Agreements provide an institutional framework for the maintenance of peace and tranquility in the border areas.
Though lot had been done during the Sino-Indian official border talks, with number of border related CSBMs put in place, the border issue remains mired in various bilateral and domestic compulsions and contradictions on both sides. Border 'encounters' between India and China are not rare and arise from the very real disagreements that exist between the two sides in demarcating the LCA on the ground. Such incidents have usually been handled, not in full media glare, but by the two sides discreetly withdrawing to their earlier positions.
The two sides withdrew sentries along the eastern section that were considered to be too close to each other. During early 1990s, India unilaterally withdrew about 35,000 troops from its eastern sector. On the other hand, the PLA maintains a force between 180,000 and 300,000 soldiers and has directly ruled Tibet from 1950 to 1976, and indirectly thereafter. Tibet today is connected to other military regions through four-lane highways and strategic roads. And Beijing's capability to airlift troops from its other neighbouring military regions has advanced very far from its comparative inability to use air force in 1962.
During the Indian Prime Minister's visit to China in June 2003 India and China signed a Memorandum on Expanding Border Trade, which adds Nathula as another pass on the India-China border for conducting border trade. The Indian side has agreed to designate Changgu of Sikkim state as the venue for border trade market, while the Chinese side has agreed to designate Renqinggang of the Tibet Autonomous Region as the venue for border trade market.
During Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao's visit to India in April 2005, the two sides signed an agreement on political settlement of the boundary issue, setting guidelines and principles. In the agreement, China and India affirmed their readiness to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to the boundary issue through equal and friendly negotiations.
India after 1962 adopted a policy to not develop the border areas. The idea was that if India developed the border areas, the Chinese can easily use these facilities in the event of a war. This policy had changed by 2008. To redress the situation arising out of poor road connectivity which has hampered the operational capability of the Border Guarding Forces deployed along the India-China border, the Government has decided to undertake phase-wise construction of 27 road links totaling 608 Km in the border areas along the India-China border in the States of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh at an estimated cost of Rs.912.00 crores. The work of construction of 2 roads in Arunachal Pradesh has started. The construction of these roads was expected to start during 2008-09.
The two sides have differences in perception of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the India-China border areas. Both sides carry out patrolling activity in the India-China border areas. Transgressions of the LAC are taken up through diplomatic channels and at Border Personnel Meetings/Flag Meetings. India and China seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement of the boundary question through peaceful consultations.
Chinese President Hu Jintao met with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in Sanya City, south China's Hainan Province, April 13, 2011. Hu said China is willing to further push forward negotiations on border issues on the basis of peace and friendliness, equal consultation, mutual respect and understanding. The two sides should consider setting up a consultation and coordination mechanism on border issues so as to achieve consensus as soon as possible and to better maintain peace and stability at the border regions before the issues are solved.
China wants India to put behind the 1962 war as an "unfortunate" thing of the past and that the two countries should strengthen their military ties including formalising a border management pact under which their troops will not fire at each other. The Chinese assessment was conveyed to the Indian defence ministry team which visited Beijing on 14-15 January 2013 for the third round of the annual defense dialogue between the two countries.
Border tensions between China and India flared after New Delhi claimed a contingent of 30 to 50 PLA soldiers crossed about 12 miles beyond the Line of Actual Control between the two countries on 15 April 2012 and stayed there for three weeks. According to New Delhi, PLA soldiers frequently conduct border incursions (more than 600 times over the last three years) but do not usually cross more than a few miles over the Line of Actual Control nor stay there longer than several hours.
Beijing denied Chinese troops had crossed into Indian territory. A Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson said, ‘‘China has always acted in strict compliance with relevant agreements and protocols between the two countries on maintaining peace and tranquility in the Line of Actual Control area along the border . . . Chinese patrol troops have never crossed the line.’’ Chinese Premier Li Keqiang attempted to downplay the incident and the risk of conflict. During a state visit to India, he insisted that ‘‘a few clouds in the sky cannot shut out the brilliant rays of our friendship.’’ Premier Li did not directly address the alleged Chinese incursion, though he said ‘‘both sides believe we need to improve various border-related mechanisms that we have put into place and make them more efficient, and we need to appropriately manage and resolve our differences.’’
President Xi Jinping met Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at the BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa, 29 March 2013. Xi urged both sides to use special representatives to strive for a fair, rational framework that can lead to a solution to the border issue as soon as possible. India will abide by political guidelines set by both sides and seek a solution to the border issue with a commitment to safeguarding peace, Singh said. Since 2003, more than a dozen rounds of talks had been launched to resolve the border disputes. But ties have still been occasionally strained by the issue and overshadowed by closer India-US relations amid Washington's accelerating Asia "pivot" policy.
Beijing and New Delhi resolved the April border impasse in May after a series of talks and agreed to pursue a formal agreement to build trust and confidence between the border troops. The two sides signed the agreement during the Indian prime minister’s trip to China in October 2013. China and India concluded a border defense cooperation pact 24 October 2013, making it a highlight of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to the Asian neighbor. The Indian Express newspaper said the pact also puts no restrictions on India developing border infrastructure or enhancing military capabilities along the border. It quoted India's Ambassador to China S. Jai Shanker as saying: "This principle allows both countries to take appropriate measures according to their own security needs."
Nevertheless, the potential for periodic low-level confrontations between border patrols to escalate likely will persist. Indian media have reported several additional albeit briefer incursions by Chinese troops since the April standoff. Furthermore, both China and India continue to boost their militaries’ capabilities on the border, adding to mutual suspicion. This has left both sides sensitive to each other’s border activities and disposed toward worst-case perceptions of the other sides’ intentions and activities. Ely Ratner and Alexander Sullivan of the Center for a New American Security, warn: ‘‘more intense strategic competition between India and China would reverberate throughout the continent, exacerbating tensions in Central Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Disruptions to the Asian engine of economic growth caused by these tensions could debilitate the global economy.’’
Chinese troops entered disputed territory along the Sino-Indian border, Indian media sources reported, claiming it's not the first time China has made an incursion into the Indian border region. "Chinese troops are reported to have entered 25 to 30km deep into Indian territory in Burtse area in Ladakh where they had pitched their tents last year that had led to a tense three-week standoff," The Times of India reported on 18 August 2014. Citing official sources, the media outlet notes that troops from the People's Liberation Army were spotted on Monday near the 'New Patrol base' post in Ladakh's Burtse area. According to these sources, the PLA has crossed a de-facto border known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and moved deeper into Indian-held territory. The PLA reportedly carried flags reading "this is Chinese territory, go back" in their hands.
India Prime Minister Narendra Modi urged visiting Chinese President Xi Jinping to resolve a boundary dispute after holding talks in New Delhi 18 September 2014 that lasted much longer than the stipulated 90 minutes. Modi said he had raised serious concerns over the issue with Chinese President Xi Jinping. He said the boundary dispute must be resolved soon. The Indian leader said they were clear that peace on the border has to be the foundation of the trust and relationship between the two nations. Modi called for an early clarification of the “line of actual control” which presently separates the two countries. He said if this happened “we can realize the potential of our relations." Xi’s visit to India took place as troops from both countries were engaged in a border standoff in the Ladakh region - one of their worst in recent years. The Chinese leader played down the tensions, attributing such incidents to their undemarcated border.
India's foreign minister said 26 September 2014 that India and China had resolved a tense, two-week military border standoff in the northern Himalayan region. Sushma Swaraj said after meeting with Chinese counterpart Wang Yi in New York that Chinese troops would begin withdrawing Friday 26 September 2014 and would be finished by Tuesday. She described the resolution as a "big accomplishment." Hundreds of Chinese troops moved into a territory claimed by India, sparking the standoff on the remote mountainous frontier of Ladakh. India said the Chinese troops wanted to extend a road they were building on their side of the border into territory claimed by India. China agreed not to extend the road into the disputed territory. In return, India agreed to demolish a recently built observation hut.
Since the last week of April 2020, India and China have been in a state of confrontation at the border of the actual line of control (LAC). India introduced reinforcements in Eastern Ladakh and North Sikkim in the apprehension of additional escalation in stress over the face-off which started on the night of 05 May 2020. The violent conflict involving between Indian and Chinese 250 troopers following their violent face-off at Pangong Tso lake space of Ladakh left many of them injured. The violent clashes between the two countries' troops erupted on 5 May in eastern Ladakh as both sides patrolled the border areas. As many as 11 soldiers, including four Indian and seven Chinese, were injured after a tense face-off near Naku La in the Sikkim sector on 8 May.
The Galewan Valley is located in the west of Aksai Chin, Xinjiang. This is a severe cold plateau area with an average altitude of more than 5000 meters. The air is thin here and the ground is bare. There are no people within tens of thousands of square kilometers.
As border tensions between India and China simmered, China on 18 May 2020 accused India of “trespassing and illegally building defence facilities” in the Galwan Valley area which lies in the contested Aksai Chin space. Chinese authorities mouthpiece Global Times mentioned that China has now “enhanced control measures” throughout the Indo-China border in Ladakh. Chinese border defense troops bolstered border control measures and made necessary moves in response to India's recent construction of defense facilities in the Galwan Valley region. In a fresh flare up in tensions along the China-India border, the Chinese troops' new move, believed to be the strongest military response to India's moves along the border since the Doklam standoff, demonstrates the strong determination of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) to defend its sovereign territory.
Way forward
Sonam Wangchuk, the engineer-cum-scientist who inspired Aamir Khan's character in '3 Idiots', has exhorted people of the country to boycott all Chinese products and apps including Tik Tok amid escalating border tension between India and China.
"Give up all Chinese software in a week, all Chinese hardware in a year," said the man who inspired the character "Phunsuk Wangdu" in the blockbuster "3 Idiots,” said the Ladakh-based innovator, adding he will be giving up his phone within a week.
"Use your wallet power. #BoycottMadeInChina #SoftwareInAWeekHardwareInAYear to stop Chinese bullying in Ladakh and eventually to liberate the 1.4 billion bonded labourers in China, as also the 10 million Uighur Muslims and 6 million Tibetan Buddhists," Wangchuk said in a tweet along with a video message.
India purchase Chinese hardware and use software like the TikTok app, and thus help China do business worth crores and enhance its military capability against India.
He said that China earns nearly Rs 5 lakh crore from its business with India every year adding, “this money is in return used at the borders to kill our soldiers”.
“wallet power” will play a more important role instead of the bullet power.
"Isliye agar humare desh ke 130 crore log aur baki ke 3 crore log jo bahar hai, sab milkar agar boycott made in China abhiyaan shuru karte hai to ho sakta hai ki sari duniya bhi yehi kare. Aur China ki arthvyavastha dugmagae aur uski janta roosh main aae. (If the 130 crore people of India and those living abroad, will take part in the ‘Boycott Made in China’ campaign then there is a possibility that entire world will follow the league),” he said.

List of chinese products at present in India and this is not exhaustive:
1.       Oppo
2.       Vivo
3.       Fosun International
4.       Midea
5.       SAIC
6.       Haier
7.       Redmi
8.       Sinosteel
9.       Shougang International
10.   Baoshan Iron & Steel Ltd.
11.   Sany Heavy Industry Ltd.
12.   Chongqing Lifan Industry Ltd.
13.   China Dongfang International
14.   Sino Hydro Corporation
15.   Huawei Technologies
16.   ZTE
17.   TCL
18.   Shanghai Electric
19.   Harbin Electric
20.   Dongfang Electric
21.   Shenyang Electric
22.   Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC)
23.   ZTE KangunTelecon Company (I) P. Ltd.
24.   ESSEL Ahmedabad Godhra Toll Roads Ltd.
25.   Shanghai Electric India Pvt. Ltd.
26.   TBEA Energy India Pvt. Ltd.
27.   Chenguang Bio-Tech India Pvt. Ltd.
28.   Ecolutions Green Energy India Pvt. Ltd.
29.   YAPP India Automotives Systems Pvt. Ltd.
30.   XINDIA Steels Ltd.
31.   Nippon Paint (India) Pvt. Ltd.
32.   Cheetah Multitrade P. Ltd.
33.   Jushi India FRP Accessories Pvt. Ltd.
34.   WISCO. Ltd.
35.   OnePlus 1+
36.   Realme
37.   Lenovo (Motorola)
38.   Meizu
39.   Coolpad
40.   Zopo Mobile
41.   Huawei Tecno Mobile
42.   Gionee
      43.  HP